Ethiopia is one of the few countries in the world, which possess unique and characteristic fauna with a high level of endemicity (World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), 1991). Ethiopia is endowed with extensive and unique environmental conditions ranging from Ras Dejen (altitude 4600m) to Dallol (altitude100). This large altitudinal and latitudinal range makes Ethiopia an ecologically diverse country and home of several unique habitats. 277 Mammalian species are known in Ethiopia of which 31 Mammals species are known to occur in Ethiopia including those that require urgent conservation action i.e. Walia Ibex (Caprawalie), Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus gelada), Mountain Nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis), Starck’s Hare (Lepus starcki). Below you can see the most recognized endemic mammals.

Walia Ibex (capra walie).
The Walia Ibex is found solely in the Simien Mountains,usually between 2,500 and 3,000m. They tend to live ingroups and they forage in opean spaces. The first record ofthe Walia was in 1835 by the explorer Rupell. Local legendstates that the Walia came to the park with the saint KidusYared who used them to carry his holy books.

Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis). The Ethiopian wolf is one of the rarest animals in the world.It is also Africa?s most threatened carnivore. The closet livingrelatives of the Ethiopian wolf are grey wolves and coyotes.The Ethiopian wolf ancestor crossed over from Eurasia duringthe Pleistocene period about 100,000 years ago, when sealevels were lower and Africa / the Middle East wereconnected.

Gelada Baboon ( Theropithecus Gelada) The Gelada is an old world monkey; not a baboon despiteprevious naming conventions. It is the only living member ofthe once widespread genus Theropithecus, and is only foundin the highland of Ethiopia. The present day distribution ofthe gelada is limited to the steep escarpments and gorges thatborder the eastern side of the central highlands and thenorthwestern highlands of Ethiopia.

Swayne`s Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swsynei) Amharic: Korkay
The Swayne’s Hartebeest or Somali Hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) is an endemic subspecies of Hartebeest in Ethiopia. Hartebeest are almost grotesquely long faced and have high wither and sloping hindquarters. The horns, carried by both sexes, are doubly curved and mounted on a pedicle. Some authors still consider that according to the shape of the horns, which is supposed to be the most important diagnostic character, each race of hartebeest should enjoy full specific rank. However, the presence of hybrid forms has led zoologists to regard them as a sub – species, and it is now generally accepted to classify them as geographic representatives of the same species.

Mount Nyala
The majority of mountain Nyala( Tragelaphus Buxtoni) are found in the Bale Mountains, where most of the southern slopes are densely forested. Nyala are a magnificent sight, particularly the old bulls with their fine spiraled horns. Females do not carry horns and they have rather long necks and large ears which are very conspicuous. The body color of an old male is dark grey, with a line of long hair along the back forming a straggly mane which continues along the spine as a brown and white crest.

Wild Ass (Equus asinus)
The wild ass formerly occupied the coastal plain extending from Massawa in the north to Wabi Shebeli in the south and inland across the plains of the Danakil.It is more likely to be feral donkeys. The distinction between other Ass is, which blends so effectively in to the back ground , and their amazing ability to walk in the rocky mountains over exceedingly steep and rough ground.

Menilik`s Bushbuk ( Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki) Amharic: Dukula
In Bale Mountains National Park, as you climb up through the Hagenia forest with its flowering trees, and enter the zone of Giant Heath and St. John`s Wort, sunlight dapples the ground beneath your feet, lichens hang softly from every twinge and bright dark green mosses clo the the branches. Suddenly a glimpse of bright chestnut draws your attention to the female bushbuck, and usually not far away is the shining dark , almost black , male. Bushbuck are often solitary, but in Bale any way, Menelik`s is almost always seen in pairs or small family parties of female and young.